The common terminology of results-based management includes the following:
Results chain (Logic Model): The defining or logical relationship between the inputs, activities, outputs and outcomes of a given policy, program or initiative.
The elements of the results chain are:
- Outcome: Describable or measurable change brought about by a cause and effect relationship. The results can be described as immediate, intermediate or ultimate.
- Development Results: Correspond to actual changes in the state of human development attributable to the project activity.
- Inputs: Financial, human, material and documentary resources used to produce outputs, through activities, and achieve results.
- Activities: Actions taken, or work carried out to produce outputs.
- Outputs: Direct products or services derived from the activities of an organization, policy, program or initiative.
- Immediate Outcome (Short Term): A change directly attributable to the outputs of an organization, policy, program or initiative.
- Intermediate result (medium term): Change that is logically expected once one or more immediate results have been achieved. These are medium-term results that are usually achieved at the end of a project or program and usually appear in the form of a change in behavior or practices among beneficiaries.
- Ultimate Outcome (Long Term): The highest level of outcome that can reasonably be attributed to an organization, policy, program or initiative in a critical way, and that is the consequence of one or more intermediate outcomes. The end result usually represents the mission of an organization, policy, program or initiative and takes the form of a lasting change of state among beneficiaries.